By Catherine M. Gallagher and Casey H. Rawson

Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses—especially learn how to see. Realize that everything connects to everything else. 

—Leonardo da Vinci

The Earth without art is just Eh. 

—Original source unknown

Take a look around you right now: how many examples can you find of things that have been designed not only for function, but for beauty? You might notice the subtle curves of a sleek smartphone, the vibrant colors of someone’s fashion, an interesting image on the cover of a nearby book, or the aerodynamic lines of a passing car. Like the other STEAM domains, the arts are all around us. And while it is certainly possible to teach and appreciate art on its own, STEAM advocates argue that it is also critical to consider the role and value of the arts in more technical domains. 

This chapter will explore how STEM became STEAM, then explain how arts-based STEAM programs can relate to learning goals and/or competencies within the current Common Core State Standards (CCSS), the Association for Library Services to Children (ALSC), and the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), all of which have some influence over how school and/or public library programs are designed. The second part of this chapter will focus on schools and public libraries across the nation who are currently incorporating arts-based STEAM into their programming. Finally, we will present tips for integrating arts-based STEAM into your public library programming, and what variables you should consider in order to make sure that your programs are culturally competent and inclusive of youth from all types of backgrounds, ages, languages, abilities, and cultures.

What does the “A” Contribute to STEAM?

The acronym STEAM came into popular use in the early 2010s, after then-President of the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) John Maeda and his colleagues began advocating for the incorporation of the letter ‘A’ for the ‘Arts’ into STEM pedagogical practices. The arts can include visual arts such as drawing, painting, sculpture, computer graphics; performance arts like dance, singing, poetry; and more. In a 2012 interview, Maeda made the case that “extending STEM to STEAM by adding art makes sense, because STEM by itself is extremely powerful. Its scale is amazing. But that alone doesn’t create warmth and humanity and connection” (Roach, 2012, “How do you accomplish that at RISD,” para. 3).

Watch John Meada’s June 2012 TED Talk, “How Art, Technology, and Design Inform Creative Leaders,” at

Since Maeda’s initial call for a shift from STEM to STEAM, many other artists, STEM professionals, and educators have embraced the idea. In his 2015 article, aptly titled “An Artist’s Argument for STEAM Education,” Curt Bailey argued that arts integration can add the valuable ingredients of beauty, emotion, and eccentricity to STEM work. He noted that products have as much functional and aesthetic appeal as they do emotional. For example, you might decide on a new car to purchase based not only on its technical specifications, but also on the car’s design and how that makes you feel: excited, playful, responsible, daring, safe. STEM professionals who do not understand the emotional impact of their designs may arrive at solutions and products that are functional, but not interesting or desirable. In terms of eccentricity, Bailey’s argued that art helps people learn to be comfortable with the out-of-the-ordinary, which in turn allows us to design things that aren’t just out-of-the-ordinary, but are extraordinary. As he summarized, “art is the discipline that most celebrates, encourages, and embraces the original and creative” (Bailey, 2015, para. 9). See the callout box below for a quick example of an out-of-the-ordinary product design.

Out-of-the-Ordinary Product Design

One extraordinary product you’ve most likely heard of—and might even be holding in your hand right now—is the Apple iPhone. The former CEO of Apple, Steve Jobs, made it his mission to marry science and art together in his company’s products. When he introduced the iPhone at the 2007 Macworld conference, the design of the phone shocked both the tech industry and consumers. Smartphone design features that we now take for granted, such as the lack of a physical keyboard, minimal physical buttons, and a screen that spans nearly the entire front of the phone, were at that time unprecedented and perhaps a bit strange-looking. But huge sales of the new phone soon put any doubts about the phone’s viability to rest. Apple has now sold more than 1.5 billion iPhones, and its sleek design quickly became the standard for virtually all smartphones, making it “not just the best-selling gadget ever created [but also] probably the most influential one” (Pierce & Goode, 2018, para. 1). Importantly, it was neither the aesthetic design nor the technical specs alone that made the iPhone a global phenomenon, but the seamless integration of both.

Many people have made convincing arguments for the inclusion of the arts in STEAM, but what about the inclusion of arts-based STEAM in the public library? Evidence from national assessments show significant gaps in access to arts education across racial, economic, and regional lines (Loewenberg, 2017). Especially for children who live in low-income or rural areas who might not have access to an art class or well-funded afterschool arts program, public libraries can provide these programs to supplement their lack of access in the school setting. These programs give children the chance to participate in these activities, let go of the stress that they have accumulated throughout the school day, and develop new relationships and knowledge in an informal learning environment. 

Research shows that “when children learn across disciplines, they are more engaged in how the world works” (University of Texas Arlington, 2017, para. 5). STEAM is interdisciplinary learning by definition. The specific type of learning engagement described in this quote can happen best in informal learning environments such as the public library, where learners are provided the autonomy to learn at their own pace and in their own ways. 

Before I present some examples of public libraries that have jumped onto the arts-based STEAM bandwagon, I will confront three common misconceptions about the role of the arts in STEAM. 

Dismantling Some Arts-in-STEAM Stereotypes

Perhaps because the integration of arts and STEM domains is still a relatively new idea, several misconceptions related to arts, STEM, and the library are common. 

First is the idea that all arts-based programs are STEAM programs. If that were the case, then virtually every public library could say that they are already offering extensive STEAM programming, since arts and crafts activities are common in existing programming for kids and teens. As discussed in earlier chapters of this book, however, STEAM is all about integration across domains, emphasizing their points of connection and interaction. A program where kids listen to a story then draw the characters might be engaging and instructive, but probably isn’t a STEAM program unless intentional connections to STEM domains are included. The example programs described later in this chapter highlight instruction that includes, or even focuses on, art, but also integrates science, technology, engineering, and/or math. 

Another misconception is the idea that deciding to include the arts in your STEAM programming will somehow take away from or the learning opportunities that your science, technology, engineering, or math programs already have. Each discipline has its own unique purpose, time, and place. Pairing one or two of them with art may seem clunky and forced at first. However, the ultimate goal of this integration is to improve and enrich your STEM instruction by providing learners a different way into this content than they might have been offered in formal education environments. Likewise, STEM content can improve and enrich arts instruction, as learners come to understand how many of our perceptions of beauty, style, and proportionality are rooted in scientific and mathematical principles and formulas.

One final misconception is that some people simply aren’t creative, and therefore won’t enjoy or excel in arts-based programs (either as the instructor or as a participant). However, I believe that you—yes you, the reader—are a creative being and you do have a place in arts-based STEAM education! We each have individual talents and experiences that we bring to our jobs, as unique as our fingerprints. No matter your age, skill-level, training, or prior appreciation for the arts, it’s essential that you recognize the fact that you are creative (in one aspect or several aspects) and identify your passion(s), such as music or web design. Once you are in touch with your passions, you can work those into the programming you provide and enjoy facilitating the experience even more. You can’t be a maker until you feel like a maker and know you are one. 

“So This Is What All the Fuss Is About!” Current Arts-in-STEAM Trends

On the exterior, Sierra Vista Middle School in the Hacienda La Puente Unified School District (HLPSUD) in La Puente, California, looks like any other non-descript middle school with its brick exterior and purple Viking mascot. Inside, however, is a hidden gem curated by science teacher Robert Yamaski. That gem is a Makerspace, “a classroom environment that allows students to achieve through making things and learning through hands-on design” (Tan, 2017, pg. 23). (For more information on Makerspaces, see Chapter 8.) After reading a 2014 New York Times article about the similarities between art and engineering, the district felt compelled to partner with the Los Angeles County Museum of Art for the creation of an interactive professional development series in K-6 arts integration, in conjunction with the Makerspace, titled the Technology Enhanced Arts Learning (TEAL) series. The TEAL series had two objectives: to show educators how the arts could be incorporated into everyday classroom activities, and how this incorporation would comply with state and federal standards. TEAL participants engaged in hands-on and close-looking activities so that they could learn how to model these activities back in their classrooms (Tan, 2017). Annually, HLPUSD hosts a District Art Show along with an Open House where STEM + Arts are showcased to parents and the wider community. 

HLPUSD’s commitment to providing STEAM education to their students is remarkable, although it is not the only school in the U.S. to do so. Other schools, such as Glenwood Elementary School in Media, Pennsylvania, are exploring the various connections between science and art. Teacher and librarian Anthony Grisillo instructs his first-grade students about physics and engineering by having them design inventions to keep a plastic egg named Humpty Dumpty from breaking (Fink, 2018). He provides students materials like “small cups, clay, fake fur, plastic eggs and more” (Fink, pg. 27). According to Grisillo, because the students are having so much fun, they don’t immediately realize they’re partaking in “sophisticated” STEAM-based lessons (Fink, pg. 28). 

While the Sierra Vista Makerspace and the Humpty Dumpty activity are great examples of how Arts-based STEAM education are being incorporated into public school STEAM lessons, there are also strong examples from public libraries, for example the Appleton Branch of the Fresh Fruit Public Libraries in a large Midwestern town where Abby Jones, the lead Children’s Services Librarian, is in charge of coordinating and facilitating Arts-based STEAM program events for local youth. About 85% of the patron population is Spanish speaking so Abby is able to use her bachelor’s degree in Spanish to lead events, whether it is leading bilingual story time at a neighborhood laundromat or a Crafternoon program. Specifically, she was inspired to incorporate STEAM into her youth programs after attending the ALA annual conference in 2014 and hearing what panelists had to say about the topic. Although Abby doesn’t have a background in art, she enjoys incorporating artists’ techniques—like having children lay on their backs and make paintings similar to Michelangelo’s when he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel—and featuring new artists every week during the Crafternoon event on Wednesdays. Other artists she’s featured include Jackson Pollock and Leonardo da Vinci. 

For Abby, the most rewarding aspect of including the Arts in her STEAM programming is seeing the connection patrons make with each other and staff over a period of time. She stressed how important it is to her that the program participants enjoy the process of making a product (whether it be an artwork, a robot, or something in between the two) more than what the end-product itself looked like, as this teaches children how to plan, build, test, and redesign a product if necessary. Most of the patrons that come to these programs are around eight years old and either in second- or third-grade, which is a wonderful time to teach problem solving skills since students are beginning to learn how to work with others in group projects and delegate responsibilities. 

Abby’s comments echo those of Debbie Ericksen, a fourth-grade teacher in New Jersey, who states that “human learning always happens better when we’re doing while we’re learning” (Fink, 2018, pg. 29). This human-to-human interaction reinforces the purpose of including the Arts in STEAM activities since art-making requires hands-on participation, collaboration, and a positive attitude even when prompts are challenging. Not only are programs like the ones Abby hosts at her library helping students improve their creative and innovative abilities, they’re also teaching children how to approach problems through a critical lens, develop a positive attitude toward problem solving, and improve their communication skills. With this in mind, let’s take a closer look at how these Arts-based STEAM programs could reflect standards set forth by ALSC and YALSA frameworks. 

How ALSC and YALSA Competencies Align With Arts-Inclusive STEAM Programming

Public libraries that serve youth have their own standards and competencies that guide work with children and teens in these settings. These include professional competencies documents released by the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) (ALSC, 2015; YALSA, 2017) that identify various needs children and teens have, and how these needs should be met by library staff through the materials and types of programming they offer. Arts-based STEAM programs can help library staff demonstrate many of the competencies laid out in these documents. 

For example, consider the free STEAM program, “Teen STEAM,” offered at the Austin Public Library (APL) in Austin, Texas. In 2016, the APL partnered with Thinkery (a local children’s museum) to create a series of programs designed for children 10 years or older. Supported by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, the program was implemented into several APL branches during the months of June and July. Art-centered events included Stop Motion Animation, Makey Makey Madness, and Paper Circuits and E-Textiles (Thinkery Austin, 2016). These activities were broad and flexible enough that any child could participate and have fun. 

By hosting these events during the summer, librarians provided physical space where tweens and teens could grow and develop their knowledge about STEAM fields in an informal learning environment, the library. Summer learning has long been a speciality of the public library, since many children and teens utilize the library more often during their summer vacations and the role of libraries in combating the “summer slide” (a loss of academic progress during breaks from school) has been well documented (Grant, 2017; New York State Library, 2019; University of Southern California, 2019). The APL series allowed these youth to continue their education in science, art, and engineering at these events. Furthermore, by implementing a these events at several branch locations across the city, APL took into account larger social issues of socioeconomic status and transportation that some children face on a daily basis. 

The Teen STEAM series aligns well with multiple competency areas from ALSC and YALSA. By working with Thinkery, the library “communicate[d] and collaborate[d] in partnership with other agencies, institutions, and organizations serving children in the community” (ALSC, 2015, “Outreach and Advocacy”). The intentional focus on education ensured that the library “cultivate[d] high-quality, developmentally appropriate, flexible learning environments that support teens individually and in group experiences as they engage in formal and informal learning activities” (YALSA, 2017, “Learning Environments”). By offering the programs at multiple branch locations, the library worked to “ensure that all children have full access to library materials, resources, and services” (ALSC, 2017, “Outreach and Advocacy”). As this example shows, arts-based STEAM instruction is well positioned to help library staff develop and demonstrate the skills and competencies identified as critical by our national professional organizations. 

How to Include the Arts in Your STEAM Programming

Ashley H. Gess (2017), Assistant Professor of STEAM Education at Augusta University (GA), identified four benchmarks that authentic STEAM education should meet: it should be “integrative, intentional, anchored in design, and art should be presented as an equal, not as an afterthought” (pgs. 40-41). But how do we get there? It’s one thing to theorize about the benefits and goals of the arts in STEAM and another to put these theories into practice, which we’ll discuss in the following section.

Putting Theories to Work

Chantale Pard’s 2018 book, STEM Programming for All Ages: A Practical Guide for Librarians is a great place to start for those who are a bit nervous to fully commit to STEAM programming in their libraries, as she provides details for how to start this process. Pard suggests that the first step to providing this quality programming should be getting your coworkers on board. Your coworkers may want some quantitative and/or qualitative information about the benefits of STEAM in general, and arts-based STEAM in partcular. It’s your job to “help [your coworkers] to understand why STEM isn’t ‘just a fad’ but is ‘a national priority’”—you can do so by citing government and library literature (Pard, 2018, p. 14). Also, it’s important for you to reiterate the fact that your coworkers don’t have to be scientific geniuses, computer wizards, or master artists to be a part of STEAM programming. 

Once your team is on board, Pard explains that the next step is figuring out how much everything will cost and how you will pay for it, also known as budgeting. If you haven’t already, it’s good to take a step back and assess the STEM program(s) you already have in place for youth to see if you can incorporate the arts into them somehow. That way, you won’t have to completely rebuild a program from the ground-up; this will save you time, money, and frustration. If you would like to raise money for an arts-based STEAM program, one way you can do this is through applying for grants at the state or federal level, which is an exciting but sometimes time-consuming process. Other ways to solicit funds for arts-based STEAM programming include hosting community fundraisers like an annual book sale or starting a local Friends of the Library chapter. Physically going out into your community and interacting with local/regional organizations may solicit funding as well as long-term partnerships, the sharing of resources or talents, and collaboration on future programming. Not only does this show community organizations that you are actively listening to the community’s needs and responding to them, but it communicates what your library has to offer besides the traditional services like reading materials and information literacy development. 

Throughout this process, there’s no need to be intimidated by your library’s physical size, its location, or the number of patrons you serve. Even if your library is on the smaller side, such as the South Bend and Winlock branches of the Timberland Regional Library (TRL) in western Washington state, forming partnerships with community organizations and applying for grants can help make arts-based STEAM programs a reality. This might include going out into the community and hosting STEAM programs off-site, which is exactly what the TRL Youth Services Librarian, Karlyn Spevacek, did in 2017. Mobile STEAM events were hosted at after-school programs, local farmer’s markets, museums, and more, which not only provided children and families with the opportunity to get hands-on with STEAM, but also advocated for STEAM and promoted the STEAM programs inside the library (Allwine, Penoyar, & Spevacek, 2017). While mobile STEAM programs may require a bit more effort on your part, they can be beneficial in both cost and community attendance as word-of-mouth spreads about the programs you offer.

Arts-Based STEAM for All Ages

Arts-based STEAM programming can be implemented with children and teens of all ages. For example, one art-based activity for elementary-age students is “Build the Library!” which has children recreate your local library or another local building out of Legos (Pard, 2018). You can have the children craft blueprints, decide on the building’s size, and brainstorm what sized Legos will fit best in certain areas. Then you can display this building in a display case in the children’s section or in the front of the library (Pard, 2018). 

Arts-based STEAM programs are great candidates for recurring weekly or monthly programs. Some examples of these types of programs are a Knitting/Crochet Club (combining math with art) and a Lego Club (combining engineering and art). What makes these programs great is that they are easily customizable to fit the age group you’re working with and are easy ways to solicit community partnerships. For example, if you want to host a Knitting or Crochet Club for middle school students, you can invite local community members who enjoy crochet and/or knitting to teach children how to make a simple hat or scarf by following a YouTube tutorial (combining technology, math, and art). All you need to do is provide the craft supplies and physical space. This type of activity gives the children access to hands-on instruction, counting and literacy comprehension experience (such as counting the number of stitches and reading the crochet/knitting pattern), and the ability to take the project home, work on it, and bring it back the following week to receive constructive feedback and more instruction. 

For middle-grade and high-school teens, you can host a weekly Creative Writing afterschool program that focuses on STEM themes such as outer space, technological dystopias, or disease pandemics. These programs are also great opportunities for collaboration; you could invite local/regional authors or English teachers to lead writing or brainstorming sessions. Again, this builds a friendly rapport between community members and allows them to showcase their talents and assist others in developing their writing skills; this can also be a chance for students who are normally underrepresented in libraries such as English-as-a-second-language (ESL) patrons to participate and create written pieces in their native languages in an affinity or caucus group.  

Arts-based STEAM programs can also be offered as one-shot events or passive programs. For example, you might offer a nature drawing program that consists of a guided walk outdoors accompanied by botanical illustration instruction. Alternatively, you could include a sketchbook and charcoal pencils or watercolors in “nature walk packs” available for checkout at the library desk, thereby encouraging users of all ages to incorporate art into their outdoor adventures. 

Culturally Competent Arts-Based STEAM

Library science researcher Patricia Montiel Overall (2009) defines cultural competency as “[…] a highly developed ability to understand and respect cultural differences and to address issues of disparity among diverse populations competently” (p. 176). As a LIS professional, you should not only be consciously aware of the many cultures and experiences your patrons bring to the library but strive to acknowledge, support, and educate about these cultures and experiences in the programming you provide, including your STEAM programming.

Since art focuses on personal expression, it offers rich opportunities for culturally relevant instruction. One way to do this is through hosting a Culturally Relevant Storytelling program (CRS), which invites children to use colored paper, markers, scissors, and technology—such as Stop Motion video—to create stories in response to prompts about their own lives or books read during story time (Hunter-Doniger, Howard, Harris, & Hall, 2018). Such prompts could include, “Where are you from?”, “Describe your family’s culture,” or “What makes your culture special/unique?” These prompts are broad enough that children can easily come up with answers that they can then illustrate to tell an engaging and informative story that other program attendees can learn or compare-and-contrast their stories to depending on the participants’ ages. With participants’ permission (and their parents’ or guardians’), finished projects can be displayed in the youth/teen area or near the library’s front entrance to showcase the diversity of cultures in your community. “When invited to explore artistically, [children] can access their imaginations, pushing the boundaries of their own cultural identity into a space that is unfamiliar,” which will no doubt educate other children and spark new conversations and understandings about differences (Hunter-Doniger, Howard, Harris, & Hall, 2018, pg. 47). 

Arts-based STEAM programs shouldn’t subliminally cater to one specific demographic of a larger diverse population. Tween or teen patrons who identify outside of the dominant gender/sexual binaries, race/ethnicity/culture, or language in your community, may not feel as welcome at—or may even feel like they’re excluded from—certain arts events because they don’t see an aspect of themselves reflected in the program. These reasons could include their identity being mis- or unrepresented by the instructor or guest of the event, the event’s activity or theme(s), or the language and imagery with which the program is promoted. One way to change this dynamic is by inviting local or regionally identified LGBTQIA+, Black, Indigenous, and Person of Color (BIPOC), and/or English-as-a-second-language (ESL) authors, visual and/or performing artists, or community organizations to partner with you in hosting arts-focused STEAM events. You can also dedicate a certain area of the library, such as a section in the Youth/Teen area, for minority youth to form affinity groups, safe and brave spaces where they can gather together and share their thoughts and experiences that might be separate from the program’s dominant participants. No matter our age, we all want to feel as though we belong somewhere. If your library can be the space where that feeling of belonging occurs for disadvantaged youth, that should make your programming even more powerful. 

Lastly, you should take into consideration some external factors or barriers that may impact one’s ability to attend your arts-based STEAM programs. Such factors like one’s socioeconomic status, transportation, familial obligations, or work/school schedules may require you to switch the hours of an arts-based STEAM event or host it off-site so that all who want to physically attend can access the space. If your library is one branch of a larger regional system, you can partner with other branch libraries to host certain events, similar to what the APL did earlier in this chapter with their “Teen STEAM” events. If you are a smaller library in a rural area, you can bring these events to nearby schools and work with the school district to create after-school programs. These modifications not only make events physically accessible for those that struggle with transportation or mobility issues, but ease anxiety or “otherness” that patrons may feel in a traditional library setting.


Over the past decade, with the addition of the Arts into STEM pedagogy, STEAM has evolved into a national movement to prepare youth for higher education and/or career readiness, as well as instilling in them the importance of the arts in everyday life. Particularly, public library arts-based STEAM programs represent a unique opportunity in that they can provide free access to arts-making materials and technologies that children might not have available to them at home or at school. Furthermore, community partnerships can be incredibly effective for arts-based STEAM programs in the library. Building relationships with local/regional talents, including writers, artists, and musicians can show youth that much is possible outside of the ‘traditional’ STEM fields. These programs will be much more enjoyable and long-lasting for all youth who attend if they can see themselves reflected in the program’s material, theme, or participants.

As Andrew Watson (2017) has said, “STEAM is more than a lesson or class; it is a culture focused on engaging students to solve real-world problems” (p. 15). Arguably, the public library is the perfect place where students can engage in this culture of problem-solving through art-making in an informal learning environment. As our world’s problems become increasingly complex, it is imperative that we continue to provide external resources, personal guidance, and access to STEAM programs that are not only arts-inclusive but considerate of all cultures, experiences, and abilities. The options to incorporate the arts into STEAM are practically endless—you might just have to be a little creative about it. 



Allwine, J., Penoyar, J., & Spevacek, K. (2017). STEAM: Tiny libraries can do it too! Alki, 33(3), 22-23.Association for Library Service to Children (2015). Competencies for librarians serving children in public libraries. Retrieved from 

Bailey, C. (2015). An artist’s argument for STEAM education. Education Digest, 81(1), 21-23. Retrieved from 

Fink, J. L. W. (2018). Explore don’t explain: Encouraging kids to explore while doing science is where true learning comes in. Scholastic Teacher, 127(3), 27-29. 

Gess, A. H. (2017). STEAM education: Separating fact from fiction. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 77(3), 39-41.

Grant, A. (2017, June 26). MIT study finds poorer kids benefit more from summer reading programs. Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Hunter-Doniger, T., Howard, C., Harris, R., and Hall, C. (2018). STEAM through culturally relevant teaching and storytelling. Art Education, 71(1), 46-51. 

Loewenberg, D. (2017). New NAEP data: Deep rifts in access to arts education. Education Writers Association. Retrieved from

New York State Library (2019). Importance of summer reading: A research brief on summer reading and public library summer reading programs. Retrieved from

Overall, P .M. (2009). Cultural competence: A Conceptual framework for library and information 

science professionals. Library Quarterly, 79(2), 175-204.

Pard, C. (2018). STEM programming for all ages: A practical guide for librarians. Lanham,  MD: Roman and Littlefield.

Pierce, D., & Goode, L. (2018, December 7). The WIRED guide to the iPhone. Wired. Retrieved from

Roach, D. (2012, February 22). STEM to STEAM: An interview with RISD’s President, John Maeda. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Tan, T. (2017). Full STEAM ahead: Creating learning opportunities for students. Leadership, 46(3), 22-27.

Thinkery Austin (2016). Free STEAM for your teen.” Retrieved from 

University of Southern California (2019). How summer reading programs help avoid the “summer slide.” Retrieved from

University of Texas-Arlington. (2017). Benefits of converting STEM programs to STEAM. Retrieved from  

Watson, A. (2017). What is STEAM and why does it matter? National Association of Elementary School Principals, 41(2), 14-15.

Young Adult Library Services Association (2017). Teen services competencies for library staff. Retrieved from